J Nat Prod. 2011 Aug 26;74(8):1731-1736. Epub 2011 Jul 29. (8R)-3β,8-Dihydroxypolypoda-13E,17E,21-triene Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Treatment-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.
Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, Ulm University , Ulm D-89081, Germany.
Mastic, a resinous exudate from Pistacia lentiscus, has been reported to exhibit selective cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. There are, however, no data published correlating distinct mastic-derived compounds with the postulated cytotoxic activity.
- A polypodane-type bicyclic triterpenoid, (8R)-3β,8-dihydroxypolypoda-13E,17E,21-triene (1), was isolated from P. lentiscus oleogum resin. In androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells, 1 potently inhibited the expression of cyclins D1 and E, but had no effect on the expression of the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21(Waf1/Cip1). Inhibition of the expression of cell cycle-regulating cyclins resulted in cell cycle arrest in the G(o)/G(1) phase, reduction in the number of cells in the S phase, and the triggering of apoptosis, as detected by increased expression of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface and by formation of DNA laddering. In addition, 1 suppressed the formation of prostate cancer colonies in soft agar and inhibited proliferation, angiogenesis, and the growth of prostate tumors xenografted onto chick chorioallantoic membranes without overt systemic toxicity. Taken together, these data show that 1 triggers apoptosis in chemoresistant, androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, 1 may serve as a lead compound for targeting so far incurable androgen-insensitive prostate cancer
- (2) MASTIC resiini luokitellaan terpenoidisiin resiineihin:
- LÄHDE 2:
National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Simple chromatographic methods were applied to terpenoid resins used as gum bases. Five triterpenoid resins, mastic, dammar resin, olibanum, benzoin gum and elemi resin, and two diterpenoid resins, rosin and copal resin, were separated with normal-phase TLC. Characteristic patterns were observed for all resins. Different samples of the same resin gave identical patterns. The TLC method is a candidate for a simple identification test for terpenoids resins. Samples were then methyl-esterified and analyzed with GC/MS. All resins exhibited characteristic chromatograms for total ion current. Major constituents of all resins were detected. Unique constituents that can be used as indicators were found in every resin. Therefore, GC/MS of methyl-esterified terpenoid resins is a valuable identification method.
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Luonnonresiini mastic on triterpeeninen rakenteeltaan.
Microchemistry and Microscopy Art Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via Guaccimanni 42, 48123 Ravenna, Italy.
This study proposes FTIR spectroscopy in the far-infrared region (FarIR) as an alternative method for the characterisation of natural resins. To this purpose, standards of natural resins belonging to four different categories
(sesquiterpenic, i.e. elemi, shellac;
diterpenic, i.e. colophony, Venice turpentine;
diterpenic with polymerised components, i.e. copal, sandarac;
triterpenic, i.e. mastic and dammar)
used as paint varnishes have been analysed by FarIR spectroscopy in ATR mode. Discrimination between spectral data and repeatability of measurements have been magnified and verified using principal component analysis, in order to verify the effectiveness of the method in distinguishing the four resin categories. The same samples were analysed in the MidIR range, but the spectral differences between the different categories were not evident. Moreover, the method has been tested on historical samples from the painting "La Battaglia di Cialdiran" (sixteenth century) and from a gilded leather (seventeenth century). In the first case, FarIR spectroscopy allowed confirmation of the results obtained by analytical pyrolysis. In the latter, FarIR spectroscopy proved successfully, effective in the identification of the superficial resin layer that could not be detected with the bulk chromatographic analyses.