tisdag 19 september 2017

Curcuma longa, gurkmeija (turmeric)

Curcuma longa, Gurkmeija omaa  hyvää mainitta influenssan päivinä.
Mitä kaikkea siitä löytyy ?
löytyyhän sitä. harvasta mausteesta löytyy noin paljon aivan tämän vuoden tutkimustulsta.  3003 tulosta kaikenkaikkiaan, joista  otan 20 ensimmäistä ja uusinta  tähän sitaattina.

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 3003

Tyagi AK, Prasad S, Majeed M, Aggarwal BB.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Oct 15;34:171-181. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.08.021. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
Lee HJ, Kang SM, Jeong SH, Chung KH, Kim BI.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Sep 7. pii: S1572-1000(17)30300-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.09.003. [Epub ahead of print]
Pan MH, Wu JC, Ho CT, Badmaev V.
J Complement Integr Med. 2017 May 12;14(3). pii: /j/jcim.2017.14.issue-3/jcim-2015-0107/jcim-2015-0107.xml. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2015-0107.
Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function
Vaughn AR, Haas KN, Burney W, Andersen E, Clark AK, Crawford R, Sivamani RK.
Phytother Res. 2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5912. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Turmeric root (Curcuma longa) is predominantly used as a spice, but has also long been known to possess antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and anticancer properties. One predominant group of active compounds in turmeric are curcuminoids, namely bright yellow-pigmented curcumin. While modern science has yet to fully investigate the therapeutic claims of turmeric and its derivatives, results have proven promising in decreasing pain and inflammation in arthritis, improving insulin sensitivity in diabetes, and even curing a variety of infections. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential for curcumin as an agent against microbial infections, with a special focus on the skin and in the development of bacterial biofilms. Curcumin has demonstrated bactericidal efficacy against a variety of infections when administered with antibiotics in several clinical studies, with consistent antimicrobial activity demonstrated in vitro, as well as in urinary tract infections, gingival infections, and chronic wound infections. Hypothesized mechanisms of action include curcumin's ability to perturb bacterial membranes, disturb protofillament assembly, and even impair bacterial virulence factors. Further investigation is needed to fully understand which organisms are most susceptible to the effects of curcumin and how curcumin can be implemented in dermatology to treat skin conditions such as chronic wounds and acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sumathi CS.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2017 Aug 30. doi: 10.2174/1871525715666170830130555. [Epub ahead of print]
Gomes GS, Maciel TR, Piegas EM, Michels LR, Colomé LM, Freddo RJ, Ávila DS, Gundel A, Haas SE.
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1208/s12249-017-0854-6. [Epub ahead of print]
Bosmali I, Ordoudi SA, Tsimidou MZ, Madesis P.
Food Res Int. 2017 Oct;100(Pt 1):899-907. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.08.001. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
Del Grossi Moura M, Lopes LC, Biavatti MW, Kennedy SA, de Oliveira E Silva MC, Silva MT, de Cássia Bergamaschi C.
Phytother Res. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5910. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Ozawa H, Imaizumi A, Sumi Y, Hashimoto T, Kanai M, Makino Y, Tsuda T, Takahashi N, Kakeya H.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40(9):1515-1524. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b17-00339.
Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the naturally occurring plant Curcuma longa, has various pharmacological actions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this paper, we evaluated the role of its internal metabolite, curcumin β-D-glucuronide (curcumin monoglucuronide, CMG), by investigating curcumin kinetics and metabolism in the blood. Firstly, we orally administered highly bioavailable curcumin to rats to elucidate its kinetics, and observed not only the free-form of curcumin, but also, curcumin in a conjugated form, within the portal vein. We confirmed that curcumin is conjugated when it passes through the intestinal wall. CMG, one of the metabolites, was then orally administered to rats. Despite its high aqueous solubility compared to free-form curcumin, it was not well absorbed. In addition, CMG was injected intravenously into rats in order to assess its metabolic behavior in the blood. Interestingly, high levels of free-form curcumin, thought to be sufficiently high to be pharmacologically active, were observed. The in vivo antitumor effects of CMG following intravenous injection were then evaluated in tumor-bearing mice with the HCT116 human colon cancer cell line. The tumor volume within the CMG group was significantly less than that of the control group. Moreover, there was no significant loss of body weight in the CMG group compared to the control group. These results suggest that CMG could be used as an anticancer agent without the serious side effects that most anticancer agents havFree Article
Bulfon C, Galeotti M, Volpatti D.
Fish Physiol Biochem. 2017 Sep 1. doi: 10.1007/s10695-017-0417-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Chávez-Zamudio R, Ochoa-Flores AA, Soto-Rodríguez I, Garcia-Varela R, García HS.
Food Funct. 2017 Aug 31. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00933j. [Epub ahead of print]
Saberi-Karimian M, Katsiki N, Caraglia M, Boccellino M, Majeed M, Sahebkar A.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Aug 30:0. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1366892. [Epub ahead of print]
The discovery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the key modulator of angiogenesis, has triggered intensive research on anti-angiogenic therapeutic modalities. Although several clinical studies have validated anti-VEGF therapeutics, with few of them approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), anti-angiogenic therapy is still in its infancy. Phytochemicals are compounds that have several metabolic and health benefits. Curcumin, the yellow pigment derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes, has a wide range of pharmaceutical properties. It has also been shown to inhibit VEGF by several studies. In this review, we elaborate the effect of curcumin on VEGF and angiogenesis and its therapeutic application
Han S, Xu J, Guo X, Huang M.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017 Aug 29. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12848. [Epub ahead of print]
Chen M, Chang YY, Huang S, Xiao LH, Zhou W, Zhang LY, Li C, Zhou RP, Tang J, Lin L, Du ZY, Zhang K.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Aug 28. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201700281. [Epub ahead of print]
Akinyemi AJ, Oboh G, Ogunsuyi O, Abolaji AO, Udofia A.
Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Aug 28. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0100-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Wang XP, Wang QX, Lin HP, Chang N.
Food Funct. 2017 Aug 29. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00555e. [Epub ahead of print]
Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Mehmood MH, Tariq K, Saleem SA, Awan S, Malik A, Hamid S, Khan R, Jafri W.
J Integr Med. 2017 Sep;15(5):398-406. doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60359-5.
Zhang HH, Zhang Y, Cheng YN, Gong FL, Cao ZQ, Yu LG, Guo XL.
Mol Carcinog. 2017 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/mc.22718. [Epub ahead of print]

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has poor prognosis due to the advanced disease stages by the time it is diagnosed, high recurrence rates and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin (a safe anti-diabetic drug) and curcumin (a turmeric polyphenol extracted from rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn.) on proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of HCC in vitro and in vivo. It was found that co-treatment of metformin and curcumin could not only induce tumor cells into apoptosis through activating the mitochondria pathways, but also suppress the invasion, metastasis of HCC cells and angiogenesis of HUVECs. These effects were associated with downregulation of the expression of MMP2/9, VEGF, and VEGFR-2, up-regulation of PTEN, P53 and suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB and EGFR/STAT3 signaling. Co-administration of metformin and curcumin significantly inhibited HCC tumor growth than administration with metformin or curcumin alone in a xenograft mouse model. Thus, metformin and curcumin in combination showed a better anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cells than either metformin or curcumin presence alone and might represent an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment.
Win NN, Ito T, Ngwe H, Win YY, Prema, Okamoto Y, Tanaka M, Asakawa Y, Abe I, Morita H.
Fitoterapia. 2017 Aug 18;122:34-39. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.08.006. [Epub ahead of print]
Nishidono Y, Fujita T, Kawanami A, Nishizawa M, Tanaka K.
Fitoterapia. 2017 Aug 18;122:40-44. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.08.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Musitiin 18.9.2017

tisdag 20 juni 2017

Kakaon prosessoinnin ja paahdon vaikutus fenolisiin yhdissteisiin


J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 13;58(19):10518-27. doi: 10.1021/jf102391q.

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.


Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Kommenttini: Termejä mainituista fytokemikaleista:

(2R,3R)-2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) -3,4-dihydro-1(2H) -benzopyran-3,5,7-triol; cis-3,3',4',5,7-Pentahydroxyflavane; Epicatechol; epi-Catechin;epi-Catechol;
IUPAC-nummer: (2R,3S)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,5,7-triol

Tumma suklaa 70% kaakaota, 4% polyfenoleja

J Diet Suppl. 2016;13(4):449-60. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2015.1108946. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

The Neuroprotective Effect of Dark Chocolate in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Nontransgenic Alzheimer Disease Model Rats: Biochemical, Behavioral, and Histological Studies.


The vulnerability to oxidative stress and cognitive decline continue to increase during both normal and pathological aging. Dietary changes and sedentary life style resulting in mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes, if left uncorrected, further add to the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the later stages of life. Certain antioxidant agents such as dietary polyphenols, taken in adequate quantities, have been suggested to improve the cognitive processes. In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of dark chocolate (DC) containing 70% cocoa solids and 4% total polyphenol content for three months at a dose of 500 mg/Kg body weight per day to 17-month-old monosodium glutamate treated obese Sprague-Dawley rats, earlier characterized as a nontransgenic AD (NTAD) rat model after reversal of obesity, diabetes, and consequent cognitive impairments. The results demonstrated that DC reduced the hyperglycemia, inhibited the cholinesterase activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates, and improved the cognitive performance in spatial memory related Barnes maze task. Histological studies revealed an increase in cell volume in the DC treated rats in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated the benefits of DC in enhancing cognitive function and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of the aged NTAD rats while correcting their metabolic disturbances.


Alzheimer disease; cognitive impairment; dark chocolate; diabesity; monosodium glutamate

måndag 12 september 2016

Lisätietoa munakoisosta

Hakusana Solanum melongena glycoalcaloids
Lämpökäsittelyn vaikutus antioksidanttipitoisuuteen:
Tuoreen ja keitetyn munakoison kardioprotektiiviset tekijät:
Ruoanlaiton ja keittämisen vaikutus munakoisoon
Hydroksikinnamiinihapopokonjugaatit munakoisossa:

Kaksi uutta munakoison malonoitua kaffeyylikiinihappoa

Fenylpropanoidiamidit munakoisossa :
Uusi kaffeyylikiinihappo munakoisossa:
Solasoniinit ja solamargiinit Afrikan munakoiso-sukulaistyypeissä
Nikotiini ja syötävät solanaceae -lajit

Antioksidanteista erityishaku:
Molekyyli NASONIINI on polyfenolinen yhdiste ja sitä on munakoison kuoressa. Se on antosyanineja ja vaikutus on antiangiogeenista ja antioksidanttista. Sen nimi on delphinidin-3-(p- coumaroyl rutinoside)-5-glucoside.

  • Munakoisoallergiaa esiintyy.  Eggplant allergy ( 14 vastausta hakuun)
1. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes. Ramesh KR, Hemalatha R, Vijayendra CA, Arshi UZ, Dushyant SB, Dinesh KB.Gene. 2016 Jan 15;576(1 Pt 1):64-71. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.09.064. Epub 2015 Sep 28. Similar articles

2. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergenic protein from Solanum melongena. Jain A, Salunke DM. Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun. 2015 Feb;71(Pt 2):221-5. doi: 10.1107/S2053230X15000734. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

3. Clinico-Immunological Analysis of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Allergy Indicates Preponderance of Allergens in the Peel. Babu BN, Venkatesh YP. World Allergy Organ J. 2009 Sep;2(9):192-200. doi: 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3181b71c07.

4. Higher histamine sensitivity in non-atopic subjects by skin prick test may result in misdiagnosis of eggplant allergy. Kumar MN, Babu BN, Venkatesh YP. Immunol Invest. 2009;38(1):93-103. doi: 10.1080/08820130802608295.

5. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of food allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) reveals female predominance. Harish Babu BN, Mahesh PA, Venkatesh YP. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 Nov;38(11):1795-802. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2008.03076.x. Epub 2008 Aug 3.

6. Allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena) caused by a putative secondary metabolite.
Pramod SN, Venkatesh YP. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18(1):59-62.

7. Strategy for allergenicity assessment of 'natural novel foods': clinical and molecular investigation of exotic vegetables (water spinach, hyacinth bean and Ethiopian eggplant).
Gubesch M, Theler B, Dutta M, Baumer B, Mathis A, Holzhauser T, Vieths S, Ballmer-Weber BK.
Allergy. 2007 Nov;62(11):1243-50.

8. Detection of some safe plant-derived foods for LTP-allergic patients.
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;144(1):57-63. Epub 2007 May 14.

9. Latex-vegetable syndrome due to custard apple and aubergine: new variations of the hevein symphony. Gamboa PM, Sánchez-Monge R, Díaz-Perales A, Salcedo G, Ansótegui J, Sanz ML.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2005;15(4):308-11.

10. Eggplant anaphylaxis in a patient with latex allergy.
Lee J, Cho YS, Park SY, Lee CK, Yoo B, Moon HB, Park HS.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 May;113(5):995-6. No abstract available.

11. Contact dermatitis due to eggplant.
Kabashima K, Miyachi Y.
Contact Dermatitis. 2004 Feb;50(2):101-2. No abstract available.

12. Allergy to eggplant (Solanum melongena).
Pramod SN, Venkatesh YP.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Jan;113(1):171-3. No abstract available.

13. Allergy to eggplant flower pollen.
Gil M, Hogendijk S, Hauser C.
Allergy. 2002 Jul;57(7):652. No abstract available.

14. Inhibition of immunologic and nonimmunologic stimulation-mediated anaphylactic reactions by water extract of white eggplant (Solanum melongena).
Lee YM, Jeong HJ, Na HJ, Ku JY, Kim DK, Moon G, Chae HJ, Kim HR, Kim HM.
Pharmacol Res. 2001 Apr;43(4):405-9.

Munakoiso israelilaiseen tapaan

Munakoisosalaatti, Eggplant Salad ( 4 servings) israelilaismaun mukaan valmistettuna

3 medium eggplants    ( Kolme keskikokoista munakoisoa, aubergiinia)
2 red chilis ( kaksi punaista  chiliä)
1 cup tomato ketchup  (kupillinen tomaattisosetta)
1/3 cup vinegar ( kolmanneskupillinen viinietikkaa)
3-4 crushed garlic cloves ( 3-4 murskattua valkosipulin kynttä)
salt and pepper to taste ( suolaa ja pippuria maun mukaan)
oil for frying ( öljyä paistamiseen)
  • Wash and dry eggplants and cut crosswise into 2 cm slices. Sprinkle both sides with salt and let drain for 30 minutes. Dry with paper towels. heat oil in a large skillet and fry eggplant slices until golden. Drain on paper towels. Cut chilis into clices (use gloves) and add to eggplant in a bowl. Mix remainig ingredients, pour over eggplant and mix gently. Chill for a few hours.
  1. Pese ja kuivaa munakoisot ja leikkaa poikittain  kahden sentin siivuiksi.  Ripota suolaa molemmin puolin ja valuta siivuja 30 minuuttia  Kuivaa sitten siivut valuneesta nesteestä   paperipyyhkeillä.  Kuumenna öljy  isossa paistinpannussa ja paista kuumassa öljyssä siivuja kunnes ne saavat kullankeltaisen värin. Valuta ne jälleen paistorasvasta paperipyyhkeitten päällä. Käytä sitten käsineitä ja paloittele chili siivuiksi  ja  lisää ne  maljaan asetettuun munakoisoon. Sekoita muut ainekset keskenään ja  kaada  ne  munakoisosiivujen päälle ja sekoita  siten varovasti.  Jäähdytä muutaman tunnin ajan ennen tarjoilua. 

måndag 30 maj 2016

Tattari on funktionaalinen ravinto. Idätetty tattarisuurimo

 Tattarisuurimoitten idätys lisää niiden ravintoarvoa.
LÄHDE:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25858540

J Food Sci. 2015 May;80(5):H1111-9. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.12830. Epub 2015 Apr 9.Effects of germination on the nutritional properties, phenolic profiles, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat.
Tiivistelmän suomennos
 Idätystä pidetään tehokkaana prosessina viljojen  ravintoarvon ja  funktionaalisuuden  parantamiseksi. Tässä otsikon työssä  tutkittiin yli 72 tuntia idätettyjen  tattarisuurimoitten   ravintoaineitten muuttumisia, antinutritiivisiä osatekijöitä, kemiallisia koostumuksia ja antioksidatiivisia aktiivisuuksia ja sitten pohdittiin  taustasyytä havaittuihin muutoksiin.
Idätysajan pidentyessä  proteiinipitoisuudet, redusoivat sokerit, totaalifenolit, totaaliflavonoidit ja kondensoidut tanniinit lisääntyivät merkitsevästi,  kun taas rasva, fytiinihappo ja trypsiini-inhibiittorin aktiivisuus vähenivät.
 Idätyksessä lisääntyivät merkitsevästi  fenoliset yhdistykset kuten rutiini, viteksiini, isoviteksiini, orientiini, iso-orientiini, klorogeenihappo, trans-3-hydroxykinnamihappo ja para-hydroxybentsoehappo ja tämä saattaa johtua fenylalaniinin-ammonialyaasin aktivaatiosta.
 Flavonoidipitoisuuden paraneminen johti merkitsevään  antioksidanttisen aktiivisuuden kohenemiseen  idätetyssä tattarissa.
Idätetyllä tattarilla oli parempi ravintoarvo ja antioksidanttiset aktiivisuudet kuin idättämättömällä  ja se edusti  flavonoidien ja fenolisten  yhdisteiden  mainiota  luonnonlähdettä. Erityisesti  se oli rutiinin ja C-glykosyyliflavonien  lähde.   Terveyden edistämisessä voitaisiin käyttää  idätettyja  tattarisuurimoita  lupaavana funktionaalisena ravintona.

  • Abstract: Germination is considered to be an effective process for improving the nutritional quality and functionality of cereals. In this study, changes of nutritional ingredients, antinutritional components, chemical composition, and antioxidant activities of buckwheat seeds over 72 h of germination were investigated, and the reasons for these changes are discussed. With the prolonged germination time, the contents of crude protein, reducing sugar, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins increased significantly, while the levels of crude fat, phytic acid, and the activity of trypsin inhibitor decreased.  Phenolic compounds, such as rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, chlorogenic acid, trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid increased significantly during the germination process, which may be due to the activation of phenylalanine ammonialyase. The improvement of flavonoids led to significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities of germinated buckwheat. Germinated buckwheat had better nutritional value and antioxidant activities than ungerminated buckwheat, and it represented an excellent natural source of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, especially rutin and C-glycosylflavones. Therefore, germinated buckwheat could be used as a promising functional food for health promotion. 

© 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

Suomalaisesta netistä löytyy reseptejä idätetylle viljalle.kuten "raakapuuro".Suositelen tutustumaan lähteeseen:

måndag 11 april 2016

Lehtiselleri eli varsiselleri eli ruotiselleri Euroopassa allergeeninen

Silloin tällöin teklee mioelni ostaa tätä raikasta  ruotikasvia. Sitä voi syödä  kuin raparperin vartta, muta se ei ole hapan vaan aika pirteän makuinen. Alkaa kiinnsotaa, mitä siinä on, kun e on niin hyvä. Etsin netistä.

Apium graveolensis (laji)  var. dulce (muunnos)
APIUM  selleirt. Celery.Stjälksellery

CeleryNandu (Apium graveolens) is a cultivated plant, variety in the family Apiaceae, commonly used as a vegetable. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks or its hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking.
In North America the dominant variety most commonly available in trade is "celery", Apium graveolens var. dulce, whose stalks are eaten raw, or as an ingredient in salads, or as a flavoring in soups, stews, and pot roasts.
In Europe the dominant variety most commonly available in trade is celeriac (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum) whose hypocotyl forms a large bulb which is eaten raw grated in a salad, cooked, or as the major ingredient in a soup. It is commonly, but incorrectly, called "celery root". The leaves of rapaceum are used as seasoning, but its fibrous stalks find only marginal use.[2][3][4]
Celery seed is also used as a spice. its extracts are also used in medicines. The plant grows to 1 m (3.3 ft) tall.

Celery leaves are pinnate to bipinnate with rhombic leaflets 3–6 cm (1.2–2.4 in) long and 2–4 cm broad. The flowers are creamy-white, 2–3 mm in diameter, and are produced in dense compound umbels. The seeds are broad ovoid to globose, 1.5–2 mm long and wide. Modern cultivars have been selected for solid petioles, leaf stalks.[5] A celery stalk readily separates into "strings" which are bundles of angular collenchyma cells exterior to the vascular bundles.[6]


Cross-section of a 'Pascal' celery rib, the petiole
Celery was described by Carl Linnaeus in Volume One of his Species Plantarum in


First attested in English in 1664, the word "celery" derives from the French céleri, in turn from Italian seleri, the plural of selero, which comes from Late Latin selinon,[7] the latinisation of the Greek σέλινον (selinon), "parsley".[8][9] The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, written in Linear B syllabic scrip


Head of celery, sold as a vegetable. Usually only the leaf stalks are eaten
The plants are raised from seed, sown either in a hot bed or in the open garden according to the season of the year, and, after one or two thinnings and transplantings, they are, on attaining a height of 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in), planted out in deep trenches for convenience of blanching, which is effected by earthing up to exclude light from the stems.
In the past, celery was grown as a vegetable for winter and early spring; it was perceived as a cleansing tonic, welcomed to counter the salt-sickness[further explanation needed] of a winter diet. By the 19th century, the season for celery had been extended, to last from the beginning of September to late in April.[12]

North America

In North America, commercial production of celery is dominated by the cultivar called 'Pascal' celery.[5] Gardeners can grow a range of cultivars, many of which differ from the wild species, mainly in having stouter leaf stems. They are ranged under two classes, white and red. The stalks grow in tight, straight, parallel bunches, and are typically marketed fresh that way, without roots and just a little green leaf remaining.


In Europe the dominant variety of celery most commonly grown is Apium graveolens var. rapaceum grown because its hypocotyl forms a large bulb, correctly called celeriac, but often incorrectly called celery root. The leaves are used as seasoning, and the stalks find only marginal use.[2][3][4]


Chinese celery (Apium graveolens var. secalinum) is a cultivar from East Asia.


The wild form of celery is known as "smallage". It has a furrowed stalk with wedge-shaped leaves, the whole plant having a coarse, earthy taste, and a distinctive smell. The stalks are not usually eaten (except in soups or stews in French cuisine), but the leaves may be used in salads, and its seeds are those sold as a spice.[13] With cultivation and blanching, the stalks lose their acidic qualities and assume the mild, sweetish, aromatic taste particular to celery as a salad plant.

Harvesting and storage

Harvesting occurs when the average size of celery in a field is marketable; due to extremely uniform crop growth, fields are harvested only once. The petioles and leaves are removed and harvested; celery is packed by size and quality (determined by colour, shape, straightness and thickness of petiole, stalk and midrib[clarification needed] length and absence of disease, cracks, splits, insect damage and rot). Under optimal conditions, celery can be stored for up to seven weeks between 0 to 2 °C (32 to 36 °F). Inner stalks may continue growing if kept at temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F). Freshly cut petioles of celery are prone to decay, which can be prevented or reduced through the use of sharp blades during processing, gentle handling, and proper sanitation.[14]


In the past, restaurants used to store celery in a container of water with powdered vegetable preservative, but it was found that the sulfites in the preservative caused allergic reactions in some people.[15] In 1986, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned the use of sulfites on fruits and vegetables intended to be eaten raw.[16]


Celery seed (Apium graveolens) essential oil
Celery is eaten around the world as a vegetable. In North America the crisp petiole (leaf stalk) is used. In Europe the hypocotyl is used as a root vegetable. The leaves are strongly flavoured and are used less often, either as a flavouring in soups and stews or as a dried herb. Celery, onions, and bell peppers are the "holy trinity" of Louisiana Creole and Cajun cuisine. Celery, onions, and carrots make up the French mirepoix, often used as a base for sauces and soups. Celery is a staple in many soups, such as chicken noodle soup.


In temperate countries, celery is also grown for its seeds. Actually very small fruit, these "seeds" yield a valuable volatile oil used in the perfume and pharmaceutical industries. They contain an organic compound called apiole. Celery seeds can be used as flavouring or spice, either as whole seeds or ground.

Celery salt

The seeds can be ground and mixed with salt, to produce celery salt. Celery salt can be made from an extract of the roots or using dried leaves. Celery salt is used as a seasoning, in cocktails (notably to enhance the flavour of Bloody Mary cocktails), on the Chicago-style hot dog, and in Old Bay Seasoning.


Celery seeds
The use of celery seed in pills for relieving pain was described by Aulus Cornelius Celsus around AD 30.[17] Celery seeds contain a compound, 3-n-butylphthalide, that has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure in rats.[18]

Celery juice significantly reduced hypertension in 87.5% of patients (14 of 16) tested.[19] Another study showed the same effect on hypertension associated with pregnancy.[20]
Tender shoots or sprouts of germinated celery seeds (Apium), flaxseeds (Linum) and fenugreek (Trigonella), when eaten together, are said to have a cooling effect on the entire body.[21]
Bergapten in the seeds can increase photosensitivity, so the use of essential oil externally in bright sunshine should be avoided. The oil and large doses of seeds should be avoided during pregnancy, as they can act as a uterine stimulant. Seeds intended for cultivation are not suitable for eating as they are often treated with fungicides.


Celery, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 12 kcal (50 kJ)

2.97 g (including fibre)
Sugars 1.4 g
Dietary fiber 1.83 g

0.17 g


Vitamin A equiv.
22 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.021 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.057 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.32 mg
Vitamin B6
0.074 mg
Folate (B9)
36 μg
Vitamin C
3.1 mg
Vitamin E
0.27 mg
Vitamin K
29.3 μg

40 mg
0.2 mg
11 mg
24 mg
260 mg
80 mg
0.13 mg

Other constituents
Water 95 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Celery is used in weight-loss diets, where it provides low-calorie dietary fibre bulk. Celery is often incorrectly thought to be a "negative-calorie food," the digestion of which burns more calories than the body can obtain. In fact, eating celery provides positive net calories, with digestion only consuming a small proportion of the calories taken in.[22]


Celery is among a small group of foods (headed by peanuts) that appear to provoke the most severe allergic reactions; for people with celery allergy, exposure can cause potentially fatal anaphylactic shock.[23] The allergen does not appear to be destroyed at cooking temperatures. Celery root—commonly eaten as celeriac, or put into drinks—is known to contain more allergen than the stalk. Seeds contain the highest levels of allergen content. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis may be exacerbated. An allergic reaction also may be triggered by eating foods that have been processed with machines that have previously processed celery, making avoiding such foods difficult. In contrast with peanut allergy being most prevalent in the US, celery allergy is most prevalent in Central Europe.[24] In the European Union, foods that contain or may contain celery, even in trace amounts, must be clearly marked as such.[25]


Polyynes can be found in Apiaceae vegetables like celery, and their extracts show cytotoxic activities.[26][27]
Apiin and apigenin can be extracted from celery and parsley. Lunularin is a dihydrostilbenoid found in common celery.
Some aromatic compounds of celery leaves and stalks are reported as butylphthalide and Sedanolide.


Selinunte didrachm coin bearing a selinon (celery) leaf, circa 515-470 BC.
Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf[28] note that celery leaves and inflorescences were part of the garlands found in the tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun (died 1323 BC), and celery mericarps dated to the seventh century BC were recovered in the Heraion of Samos. However, they note "since A. graveolens grows wild in these areas, it is hard to decide whether these remains represent wild or cultivated forms." Only by classical times is it certain that celery was cultivated.
M. Fragiska mentions an archeological find of celery dating to the 9th century BC, at Kastanas; however, the literary evidence for ancient Greece is far more abundant. In Homer's Iliad, the horses of the Myrmidons graze on wild celery that grows in the marshes of Troy, and in Odyssey, there is mention of the meadows of violet and wild celery surrounding the cave of Calypso.[29]

Cultural depictions

Apium illustration from Barbarus Apuleius' Herbarium, c. 1400.
A chthonian symbol among the ancient Greeks, celery was said to have sprouted from the blood of Kadmilos, father of the Cabeiri, chthonian divinities celebrated in Samothrace, Lemnos, and Thebes. The spicy odour and dark leaf colour encouraged this association with the cult of death. In classical Greece, celery leaves were used as garlands for the dead, and the wreaths of the winners at the Isthmian Games were first made of celery before being replaced by crowns made of pine. According to Pliny the Elder[30] in Achaea, the garland worn by the winners of the sacred Nemean Games was also made of celery.[29] The Ancient Greek colony of Selinous (Greek: Σελινοῦς, Selinous), on Sicily, was named after wild parsley that grew abundantly there; Selinountian coins depicted a parsley leaf as the symbol of the city.
The name "celery" retraces the plant's route of successive adoption in European cooking, as the English "celery" (1664) is derived from the French céleri coming from the Lombard term, seleri, from the Latin selinon, borrowed from Greek.[31]
Celery's late arrival in the English kitchen is an end-product of the long tradition of seed selection needed to reduce the sap's bitterness and increase its sugars. By 1699, John Evelyn could recommend it in his Acetaria. A Discourse of Sallets: "Sellery, apium Italicum, (and of the Petroseline Family) was formerly a stranger with us (nor very long since in Italy) is an hot and more generous sort of Macedonian Persley or Smallage...and for its high and grateful Taste is ever plac'd in the middle of the Grand Sallet, at our Great Men's tables, and Praetors feasts, as the Grace of the whole Board".[32]

See also


"Taxon: Apium graveolens". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), US Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved March 31, 2016.