lördag 2 maj 2015

Keräkaalin edullinen koostumus

Raakakaalin  ja prosessoidun keräkaalin antioksidanttisista ominaisuuuksista

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 May;55(3):191-9. Antioxidant properties of raw and processed cabbages.


  •   Määriteltiin tuoreesta ja prosessoidusta keräkaalista niiden totaalifenolit, totaaliflavonoidit, antioksidanttinen kapasiteetti ja yksittäiset fenoliset yhdisteet,, jota  voitaisiin selvitellä valkokaalien  antioksidanttisten ominaisuuksien vaikutuksia.
  • Tuoreissa ja pikkelsiksi tehdyissä punakaaleissa  oli korkein  totaalinen fenolipitoisuus ja gallihappojen ekvivalenttipitoisuus (GAE). Raakapunakaalissa ja pikkelsissä oli myös flavonoidien pitoisuus ja katekiiniekvivalentit  korkeimmat  Antioksidanttivaikutus ilmastuna C-vitamiiniekvivalentteina tuoreesta näytteestä  vaihteli alueella 57. 1 mg- 695.6 mg  C-vitamiiniekvivalenttia tuoreessa näytteessä  ja korkeimmat pitoisuudet olivat raakakaalissa ja pikkelsissä , joissa  oli korkein antioksidanttinenkin kapasiteetti.
To study the effect of polyphenolics on antioxidant activities of cabbages, the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and individual phenolic compounds in raw and processed cabbages were determined. Fresh and pickled red cabbages exhibited the highest total phenolic contents (393.1+/-10.8 mg and 366.3+/-3.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh sample, respectively). Fresh and pickled red cabbages were also highest in flavonoids (108.1+/-9.3 mg and 72.4+/-4.4 mg catechin equivalents/100 g fresh sample, respectively). The antioxidant capacity (expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity) ranged from 57.1 to 695.6 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 g fresh sample, where raw and pickled red cabbages exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. 
  •  Oli hyvä lineaarinen korrelaatio totaalifenolien ja antioksidanttisuuden kesken ja  totaaliflavonoidien jja antioksidanttisuuden kesken. Kuitenkin suhde  askorbiinihapon ja antioksidanttisuuden kesken  oli matala. Antioksidanttinen kyky raakakaalissa ja prosessoidussa kaalissa korreloi hyvin niiden poolyfenolien pitoisuuteen.
There was a good linear relationship between the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity (r2=0.9743), and between the total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (r2=0.9557); however, the relationship between the ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity was very low (r2=0.1442). The antioxidant capacity of raw and processed cabbages was highly correlated with their contents of polyphenolics.
  • KAMFEROLI, KVERSETIINI ja APIGENIINI olivat pääasialliset flavonoidit, joita keräkaaleissa esiintyi, paitsi punakaalissa, sekä raa-assa että pikkelsimuotoisessa - oli hallitsevin flavonoidi SYANIDIINI, joka oli  antamassa  pääasiallista antioksidanttista kapasiteettia FENOLIEN totaalimäärän    FLAVONOIDIEN ohella.
Kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin were the major flavonoids existing in cabbages except for raw and pickled red cabbages, where cyanidin was the predominant flavonoid (73.6-117.7 mg/kg). In the red cabbages, cyanidin was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity as well as the content of total phenolics and flavonoids.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

fredag 1 maj 2015

Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae ( bromelaiini)

Ananas kuuluu myös silmälle edullisiin hedelmiin.  Varsinkin tuoreena, jolloin siinä ei ole lisänä sokeriliemiä
kts. www.fineli.fi

Ananaksesta on löydetty maksaa suojaavia ominaisuuksia. esim  parasetamolimyrkytystä vastustavaa ominaisuutta.  Tässä allalolevassa on käytetty fermentoitua anansjuissia.  .  ( Netissä löytyy pannas vinegar thetynä kuorista fermentaatiolla. Tässä alla sanotaan etät juissista, Mutta onko taas juissi tehty koko hedelemistä, ei käy ilmi.


Chin Med. 2015 Feb 13;10:3. doi: 10.1186/s13020-015-0030-4. eCollection 2015.
Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.
Mohamad NE1, Yeap SK2 et al.



Pineapple (Ananas comosus) was demonstrated to be hepatoprotective. This study aims to investigate the reversing effects of pineapple vinegar on paracetamol-induced liver damage in murine model.


Pineapple juice was fermented via anaerobic and aerobic fermentation to produce pineapple vinegar. Male BALB/c mice (n = 70) were separated into 7 treatment groups (n = 10). Pineapple vinegar (0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW) and synthetic vinegar were used to treat paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. The hepatoprotective effects were determined by serum biochemistry profiles (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and triglyceride (TG)), liver antioxidant levels (ferric-reducing ability plasma (FRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reduced glutathione assays (GSH)) and histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The effects were further evaluated by the expression levels of iNOS, NF-κB, and cytochrome P450 2E1 by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Vinegar samples were also tested for in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total phenolic content (TPC)). Soluble phenolic acid contents in the samples were identified by HPLC.


Pineapple vinegar contained 169.67 ± 0.05 μg GAE/mL of TPC, with 862.61 ± 4.38 μg/mL gallic acid as the main component. Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, including AST (P = 0.008), ALT (P = 0.006), ALP (P = 0.002), and TG (P = 0.006) after 7 days of paracetamol treatment.
 Liver antioxidant levels such as hepatic glutathione (P = 0.003), SOD (P < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (P = 0.002) and FRAP (P <0 .001="" b="">were restored after the treatment.
 Pineapple vinegar reduced the expressions of iNOS (P = 0.003) and NF-kB (P = 0.003) and the level of NO (P = 0.003) significantly. Pineapple vinegar also downregulated liver cytochrome P450 protein expression.


Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, restored liver antioxidant levels, reduced inflammatory factor expressions, and down regulated liver cytochrome P450 protein expression in paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.


Luoga W, Mansur F, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Garnett MC, Lowe A, Behnke JM.
J Helminthol. 2015 Mar;89(2):165-74. doi: 10.1017/S0022149X13000692. Epub 2013 Oct 31.
Romano B, Fasolino I, Pagano E, Capasso R, Pace S, De Rosa G, Milic N, Orlando P, Izzo AA, Borrelli F.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Mar;58(3):457-65. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201300345. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Dutta S, Bhattacharyya D.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Nov 25;150(2):451-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.024. Epub 2013 Sep 26.
The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property

Novaes LC, Ebinuma Vde C, Mazzola PG, Pessoa A Jr.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2013 Sep-Oct;60(5):527-35. doi: 10.1002/bab.1121. Epub 2013 Sep 6.
Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process.