tisdag 19 september 2017

Curcuma longa, gurkmeija (turmeric)

Curcuma longa, Gurkmeija omaa  hyvää mainitta influenssan päivinä.
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löytyyhän sitä. harvasta mausteesta löytyy noin paljon aivan tämän vuoden tutkimustulsta.  3003 tulosta kaikenkaikkiaan, joista  otan 20 ensimmäistä ja uusinta  tähän sitaattina.

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Tyagi AK, Prasad S, Majeed M, Aggarwal BB.
Phytomedicine. 2017 Oct 15;34:171-181. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.08.021. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
Lee HJ, Kang SM, Jeong SH, Chung KH, Kim BI.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Sep 7. pii: S1572-1000(17)30300-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pdpdt.2017.09.003. [Epub ahead of print]
Pan MH, Wu JC, Ho CT, Badmaev V.
J Complement Integr Med. 2017 May 12;14(3). pii: /j/jcim.2017.14.issue-3/jcim-2015-0107/jcim-2015-0107.xml. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2015-0107.
Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function
Vaughn AR, Haas KN, Burney W, Andersen E, Clark AK, Crawford R, Sivamani RK.
Phytother Res. 2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5912. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Turmeric root (Curcuma longa) is predominantly used as a spice, but has also long been known to possess antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and anticancer properties. One predominant group of active compounds in turmeric are curcuminoids, namely bright yellow-pigmented curcumin. While modern science has yet to fully investigate the therapeutic claims of turmeric and its derivatives, results have proven promising in decreasing pain and inflammation in arthritis, improving insulin sensitivity in diabetes, and even curing a variety of infections. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential for curcumin as an agent against microbial infections, with a special focus on the skin and in the development of bacterial biofilms. Curcumin has demonstrated bactericidal efficacy against a variety of infections when administered with antibiotics in several clinical studies, with consistent antimicrobial activity demonstrated in vitro, as well as in urinary tract infections, gingival infections, and chronic wound infections. Hypothesized mechanisms of action include curcumin's ability to perturb bacterial membranes, disturb protofillament assembly, and even impair bacterial virulence factors. Further investigation is needed to fully understand which organisms are most susceptible to the effects of curcumin and how curcumin can be implemented in dermatology to treat skin conditions such as chronic wounds and acne vulgaris. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sumathi CS.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2017 Aug 30. doi: 10.2174/1871525715666170830130555. [Epub ahead of print]
Gomes GS, Maciel TR, Piegas EM, Michels LR, Colomé LM, Freddo RJ, Ávila DS, Gundel A, Haas SE.
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1208/s12249-017-0854-6. [Epub ahead of print]
Bosmali I, Ordoudi SA, Tsimidou MZ, Madesis P.
Food Res Int. 2017 Oct;100(Pt 1):899-907. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.08.001. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
Del Grossi Moura M, Lopes LC, Biavatti MW, Kennedy SA, de Oliveira E Silva MC, Silva MT, de Cássia Bergamaschi C.
Phytother Res. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5910. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Ozawa H, Imaizumi A, Sumi Y, Hashimoto T, Kanai M, Makino Y, Tsuda T, Takahashi N, Kakeya H.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40(9):1515-1524. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b17-00339.
Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the naturally occurring plant Curcuma longa, has various pharmacological actions such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this paper, we evaluated the role of its internal metabolite, curcumin β-D-glucuronide (curcumin monoglucuronide, CMG), by investigating curcumin kinetics and metabolism in the blood. Firstly, we orally administered highly bioavailable curcumin to rats to elucidate its kinetics, and observed not only the free-form of curcumin, but also, curcumin in a conjugated form, within the portal vein. We confirmed that curcumin is conjugated when it passes through the intestinal wall. CMG, one of the metabolites, was then orally administered to rats. Despite its high aqueous solubility compared to free-form curcumin, it was not well absorbed. In addition, CMG was injected intravenously into rats in order to assess its metabolic behavior in the blood. Interestingly, high levels of free-form curcumin, thought to be sufficiently high to be pharmacologically active, were observed. The in vivo antitumor effects of CMG following intravenous injection were then evaluated in tumor-bearing mice with the HCT116 human colon cancer cell line. The tumor volume within the CMG group was significantly less than that of the control group. Moreover, there was no significant loss of body weight in the CMG group compared to the control group. These results suggest that CMG could be used as an anticancer agent without the serious side effects that most anticancer agents havFree Article
Bulfon C, Galeotti M, Volpatti D.
Fish Physiol Biochem. 2017 Sep 1. doi: 10.1007/s10695-017-0417-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Chávez-Zamudio R, Ochoa-Flores AA, Soto-Rodríguez I, Garcia-Varela R, García HS.
Food Funct. 2017 Aug 31. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00933j. [Epub ahead of print]
Saberi-Karimian M, Katsiki N, Caraglia M, Boccellino M, Majeed M, Sahebkar A.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Aug 30:0. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1366892. [Epub ahead of print]
The discovery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), the key modulator of angiogenesis, has triggered intensive research on anti-angiogenic therapeutic modalities. Although several clinical studies have validated anti-VEGF therapeutics, with few of them approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), anti-angiogenic therapy is still in its infancy. Phytochemicals are compounds that have several metabolic and health benefits. Curcumin, the yellow pigment derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes, has a wide range of pharmaceutical properties. It has also been shown to inhibit VEGF by several studies. In this review, we elaborate the effect of curcumin on VEGF and angiogenesis and its therapeutic application
Han S, Xu J, Guo X, Huang M.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017 Aug 29. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12848. [Epub ahead of print]
Chen M, Chang YY, Huang S, Xiao LH, Zhou W, Zhang LY, Li C, Zhou RP, Tang J, Lin L, Du ZY, Zhang K.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Aug 28. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201700281. [Epub ahead of print]
Akinyemi AJ, Oboh G, Ogunsuyi O, Abolaji AO, Udofia A.
Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Aug 28. doi: 10.1007/s11011-017-0100-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Wang XP, Wang QX, Lin HP, Chang N.
Food Funct. 2017 Aug 29. doi: 10.1039/c7fo00555e. [Epub ahead of print]
Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Mehmood MH, Tariq K, Saleem SA, Awan S, Malik A, Hamid S, Khan R, Jafri W.
J Integr Med. 2017 Sep;15(5):398-406. doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60359-5.
Zhang HH, Zhang Y, Cheng YN, Gong FL, Cao ZQ, Yu LG, Guo XL.
Mol Carcinog. 2017 Aug 19. doi: 10.1002/mc.22718. [Epub ahead of print]

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has poor prognosis due to the advanced disease stages by the time it is diagnosed, high recurrence rates and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin (a safe anti-diabetic drug) and curcumin (a turmeric polyphenol extracted from rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn.) on proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of HCC in vitro and in vivo. It was found that co-treatment of metformin and curcumin could not only induce tumor cells into apoptosis through activating the mitochondria pathways, but also suppress the invasion, metastasis of HCC cells and angiogenesis of HUVECs. These effects were associated with downregulation of the expression of MMP2/9, VEGF, and VEGFR-2, up-regulation of PTEN, P53 and suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB and EGFR/STAT3 signaling. Co-administration of metformin and curcumin significantly inhibited HCC tumor growth than administration with metformin or curcumin alone in a xenograft mouse model. Thus, metformin and curcumin in combination showed a better anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cells than either metformin or curcumin presence alone and might represent an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment.
Win NN, Ito T, Ngwe H, Win YY, Prema, Okamoto Y, Tanaka M, Asakawa Y, Abe I, Morita H.
Fitoterapia. 2017 Aug 18;122:34-39. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.08.006. [Epub ahead of print]
Nishidono Y, Fujita T, Kawanami A, Nishizawa M, Tanaka K.
Fitoterapia. 2017 Aug 18;122:40-44. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2017.08.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Musitiin 18.9.2017

tisdag 20 juni 2017

Kakaon prosessoinnin ja paahdon vaikutus fenolisiin yhdissteisiin


J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 13;58(19):10518-27. doi: 10.1021/jf102391q.

Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.


Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Kommenttini: Termejä mainituista fytokemikaleista:

(2R,3R)-2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) -3,4-dihydro-1(2H) -benzopyran-3,5,7-triol; cis-3,3',4',5,7-Pentahydroxyflavane; Epicatechol; epi-Catechin;epi-Catechol;
IUPAC-nummer: (2R,3S)-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene-3,5,7-triol

Tumma suklaa 70% kaakaota, 4% polyfenoleja

J Diet Suppl. 2016;13(4):449-60. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2015.1108946. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

The Neuroprotective Effect of Dark Chocolate in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Nontransgenic Alzheimer Disease Model Rats: Biochemical, Behavioral, and Histological Studies.


The vulnerability to oxidative stress and cognitive decline continue to increase during both normal and pathological aging. Dietary changes and sedentary life style resulting in mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes, if left uncorrected, further add to the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the later stages of life. Certain antioxidant agents such as dietary polyphenols, taken in adequate quantities, have been suggested to improve the cognitive processes. In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of dark chocolate (DC) containing 70% cocoa solids and 4% total polyphenol content for three months at a dose of 500 mg/Kg body weight per day to 17-month-old monosodium glutamate treated obese Sprague-Dawley rats, earlier characterized as a nontransgenic AD (NTAD) rat model after reversal of obesity, diabetes, and consequent cognitive impairments. The results demonstrated that DC reduced the hyperglycemia, inhibited the cholinesterase activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates, and improved the cognitive performance in spatial memory related Barnes maze task. Histological studies revealed an increase in cell volume in the DC treated rats in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated the benefits of DC in enhancing cognitive function and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of the aged NTAD rats while correcting their metabolic disturbances.


Alzheimer disease; cognitive impairment; dark chocolate; diabesity; monosodium glutamate